Since ancient times, rice has been grown in Southeast Asia. In China, India and Japan, it came around the 2nd Millennium BC. And from India, during the campaigns of Alexander the great, it got to Central Asia and Europe. In the up-ush centuries ad, the Arab conquerors brought rice to Spain and Italy. In the South of France and Hungary, rice cultivation began only after the Second world war.
And this covers all our needs for rice, even for export remains. Almost all rice in Russia is grown in the Krasnodar region. In Soviet times, rice was also grown in the Crimea, but after the collapse of the USSR, rice farming there began to weaken. And after joining the Russian Federation and disconnecting the Peninsula from the Dnieper water, rice farming in the Crimea completely withered — after all, rice needs a lot of water. The word "rice" in Russia appeared in the XIX century, either from Dutch (rijs), or from German (reis), or maybe from Italian (riso). Before that, rice was called "Saracen grain"or" Saracen wheat". It's funny, but in today's Italy," our "buckwheat is called that way, "grano saraceno", i.e. it is Saracen grain.
Estuary (the most ancient); upland; Proline (irrigation) is the most modern. Estuarine rice cultivation — in which rice is grown in river bays and in places flooded during floods. This is how rice is grown in Southeast Asia, it is simple, but ineffective. This is the most ancient method of cultivation. Dry-field rice cultivation gives a better harvest than in estuary cultivation-rice is grown without artificial irrigation, in places where there is already a lot of precipitation. However, this method of planting rice depletes the land, it is necessary to give the fields a rest, changing the culture cultivated there.
Well, of course-the grain itself, which is very much (in dry — up to 70%) carbohydrates and very little protein. Cereals and starch are made from grain. Oil is obtained from rice germ. They also make rice wine, rice vodka, and beer. Rice straw is used to make very valuable rice paper and cardboard. The weaving of the alleged rice straw is actually made from the stems of wheat and rye. Rice bran and rice chaff are used as feed for livestock and poultry. But in addition, in rice checks in many countries of Southeast Asia, as well as in China, Uzbekistan and others, fish are bred. Herbivores-they weed out weeds and fertilize plantations. And when the water from the checks is drained just before the harvest, the fish is also collected in baskets. It turns out two crops at the same time. And the fish and the garnish to it.
There is a classification of rice types by grain length, color, and grain processing method. According to the grain length, rice can be long-grain, medium-grain, round-grain. Long-grain rice has a grain length of about 8 mm. It can be white or brown. When cooking, the grains of this rice do not stick together, dishes from it are obtained crumbly. Medium-grained rice has a grain length of up to 6 mm. It can be white or brown. When cooking, the grains of this rice may stick together a little, they are well suited for risotto and a variety of cereals. Round-grain rice has rounded grains up to 5 mm long. When cooked, it is highly boiled, suitable for a variety of puddings, casseroles, porridges and sushi.
Brown rice is very healthy. It is obtained when the grain is not ground, it remains a shell (bran). This rice is cooked for up to 40 minutes, but it has a lot of trace elements and vitamins. This rice does not boil, but it is not stored for a long time. White rice is rice that is completely peeled from the shell, bran. It takes 10-15 minutes to cook, but there is almost nothing in it except carbohydrates. Steamed rice is obtained after special processing of brown rice. This rice is just as healthy as brown rice, but it takes only 20 minutes to cook. The color of rice is white, beige, red, black, yellow and purple
There are fragrant varieties of rice — basmati and Jasmine. In France, red rice is cultivated, which has a nutty aroma and taste. In Tibet, rice is black and has a lot of protein. In Central Asia, there is an excellent pink rice devzira for pilaf-it is indispensable for making Uzbek pilaf.
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